Agricultural waste: a source of bioactive compounds for potential application in meat products
Globalization and population growth have led to the development of a modern agricultural system that currently produces millions of tons of waste. This waste is disposed of by burning, dumping or accumulating in landfills, resulting in environmental, health, and economic issues. The agro-industrial residues are abundant with phenolic bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, and carotenoids, which, among others, exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities and have good potential as food flavorings and colorants. The most common method for isolating these compounds is solvent extraction. However, there is a trend towards eco-innovative extraction methods that offer better possibilities for implementation on an industrial scale. The oxidation of lipids and proteins is one of the main causes of quality deterioration in meat and meat products during processing and storage. Therefore, the application of natural antioxidants extracted from these new, unconventional raw materials could be a sustainable alternative to synthetic antioxidants. This review summarizes the data on natural antioxidants derived from agro-industrial by-products and their incorporation in various meat product formulations. It also addresses limiting factors related to safety and changes in sensory properties.